Acute Kidney Injury Risk in Derby (ARID) Study

The ARID study is a prospective cohort study of people who suffered an acute kidney injury (AKI) during a hospital stay.

The ARID study includes people who had a non-elective hospital stay, but did not suffer an AKI. This is to take account of the natural aging effect causing a reduction in kidney function in some people.

Recruitment to the ARID Pilot Study ran from November 2011 to January 2013 and the final data review after five years took place in November 2017.  Work on the ARID Pilot Study is now closed.  The main aim of this study was to identify whether a full study was viable.  The ARID Pilot Study is therefore considered to be successful.

Recruitment to the ARID Main Study began in April 2013 and was closed in April 2016. The first year follow-ups were completed in January 2017.

Third year follow-ups will continue until January 2019. Five year follow-ups started in February 2018 and will run until January 2021.

Background and rationale for the ARID Study

There is an increasing recognition that episodes of AKI may have profound longer term effect on renal function and patient outcomes. However, the majority of studies in this area are retrospective and many only focus on specific patient groups. There is therefore a need to examine the long term effects of AKI on patient outcomes in a prospective, UK based study that includes general hospitalised patients from across the entire spectrum of AKI severity.

We set up a long-term, observational case-control study to investigate the effects of AKI on patient outcomes. Cases (patients with AKI) and controls (those screened for AKI but who did not sustain it) were identified from a hospital-wide electronic reporting system for AKI based on the AKIN criteria.

Potential participants were contacted via post and invited to participate; all participants gave informed consent. The control group was matched to AKI patients on a 1:1 basis in terms of baseline eGFR (within the same CKD stage but as closely as possible) and age ± 5yrs. Renal function and proteinuria were measured at 3 months after AKI (or index hospital admission for controls) and will also be measured at 1 and 3 years. Baseline demographics, AKI data (baseline renal function, peak serum creatinine/AKI stage), co-morbidity and hospital stay data were extracted from electronic records.


Kidney Research UK logo British Renal Society logo Bupa Research Foundation logo


Published Papers:

  • Horne KL, Selby NM. Chronic Kidney Disease After Acute Kidney Injury – How Can We Identify Those At Risk? Journal of Renal Nursing 2015 7:3, 124-129
  • Horne KL, Shardlow A, Taal MW, Selby NM. Long term outcomes after Acute Kidney Injury: lessons from the ARID Study. Nephron 2015; 131: 102-106
  • Horne KL, Packington R, Monaghan J, Reilly T, McIntyre CW, Selby NM. The Effects Of AKI On Long Term Renal Function And Proteinuria In A General Hospitalised Population. Nephron Clin Prac 2014;128(1-2):192-200
  • Selby NM, Kolhe NV, McIntyre CW, Monaghan J, Lawson N, Elliott D, Packington R, Fluck RJ. Defining the Cause of Death in Hospitalised Patients with Acute Kidney Injury. PLoS ONE, November 2012, vol./is. 7/11(no pagination), 1932-6203 (02 Nov 2012)

Conference presentations or posters:

  • ASN conference 2016: Effect of Acute Kidney Injury on Chronic Kidney Disease Progression and Proteinuria: Baseline Results from the ARID study - Oral presentation
  • ASN conference 2016: Prescribing patterns at the time of AKI: opportunities to improve care – Poster
  • EDTA and BRS conferences 2016: AKI is associated with significant deterioration in renal function and proteinuria which persists to three years: results of a prospective case-control study - Oral presentation
  • EDTA conference 2016: Risk factors for CKD progression after Acute Kidney Injury - Oral presentation (Poster at BRS conference 2016)
  • ERA and BRS conferences 2015: Description of the natural history of proteinuria following Acute Kidney Injury - Oral presentation
  • RA-BRS conference 2014: AKI is associated with significant deterioration in renal function and proteinuria which persists to at least 1 year: results of a prospective case-control study - Poster
  • RA-BRS conference 2014: Risk Factors for Development and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease Following Acute Kidney Injury: A Prospective Study - Poster
  • ASN conference 2013: Effect of Acute Kidney Injury on Chronic Kidney Disease Progression and Proteinuria: Initial Results from a Pilot Study - Poster 3297
  • BRS conference 2013: Effect of Acute Kidney Injury on Chronic Kidney Disease Progression and Proteinuria: Initial Results from a Pilot Study - Oral presentation (Poster at RA-BRS conference 2013)


Glossary of terms

AKI Acute Kidney Injury
Not an actual injury but a sudden reduction in kidney function.
CKD Chronic Kidney Disease
A gradual decline in kidney function over time.
Prospective Cohort Study A study to which participants are recruited and then data collected over time.
Retrospective Cohort Study A study which data previously collected for a defined group of patients.

Retrospective studies have limitations as the subject data is historic and cannot be extended as the study develops.  However, prospective studies require additional organisation; time has to elapse for the data to be collected and the participant cohort can diminish throughout the duration of the study.

Cohort  Group or sub-group of participants in a study.
Primary care Health care provided by your GP in the community.
Secondary care

Health care provided by the hospital.


Contact us

Telephone: 01332 788 263


Please contact us using the email address for questions about the ARID study.

In general, we would prefer not to receive queries about your personal health care via this email address.