Renal Risk in Derby (RRID) Study

The Renal Risk in Derby (RRID) Study is a prospective cohort study of people with CKD stage 3 in primary care. Recruitment began in June 2008 and completed in April 2010. Year-5 follow-up visits were completed in April 2015.

Background and rationale for the RRID study

Chronic kidney disease affects 10-20% of adults in most countries and is associated with multiple adverse outcomes including increased risk of death, progression to end-stage kidney disease (requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation) and increased risk of diseases of the heart and arteries 

The risk of these adverse outcomes varies considerably and previous studies indicate that most people with chronic kidney disease are at low risk. 

Many previous studies have been conducted in large teaching hospitals and have understandably emphasized the risk of end-stage kidney disease but the results may not be applicable to the majority with chronic kidney disease because most have mild disease, are cared for by family doctors and are never referred to a kidney specialist. 

We started the RRID study to better understand the risks associated with chronic kidney disease in people cared for by family doctors in order to provide a perspective that is applicable to the majority of people affected. 

We plan to investigate the role of a range of common clinical variables and novel factors (including skin autoflourescence, pulse wave velocity and cystatin C) in determining risk for individuals with CKD stage 3 in primary care. 

Funding

The RRID study is currently funded by a research grant from the Dunhill Medical Trust.

Previous phases of the study were funded by a Fellowship award from Kidney Research UK and the British Renal Society as well as grants from Roche Products PLC and a research grant from Genzyme, now a part of Sanofi.

No Pharmaceutical company had any role in the design or conduct of the study. The results are wholly owned by the investigators.

Kidney Research UK logo   British Renal Society logo The Dunhill Medical Trust logo

 

Bibliography

We have published a range of journal articles from data collected from the RRID study. Additionally, many results have been presented at national and international conferences. Journal articles published are listed below.

  1. Shardlow A, McIntyre NJ, Fluck RJ, McIntyre CW, Taal MW (2016) Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care: Outcomes after Five Years in a Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS Med 13(9): e1002128. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002128
     
  2. Fraser SD, Roderick PJ, May CR, McIntyre N, McIntyre C, Fluck RJ, Shardlow A, Taal MW. The burden of comorbidity in people with chronic kidney disease stage 3: a cohort study. BMC Nephrol. 2015 Dec 1;16:193. 
     
  3. Nerbass FB, Pecoits-Filho R, McIntyre NJ, Shardlow A, McIntyre CW, Taal MW. Reduction in sodium intake is independently associated with improved blood pressure control in people with chronic kidney disease in primary care. Br J Nutr. 2015 Sep 28;114(6):936-42. 
     
  4. Assi LK, McIntyre N, Fraser S, Harris S, Hutchison CA, McIntyre CW, Cockwell P, Taal MW. The Association between Polyclonal Combined Serum Free Light Chain Concentration and Mortality in Individuals with Early Chronic Kidney Disease. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 1;10(7):e0129980. 
     
  5. Nerbass FB, Pecoits-Filho R, McIntyre NJ, McIntyre CW, Taal MW. High sodium intake is associated with important risk factors in a large cohort of chronic kidney disease patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jul;69(7):786-90. 
     
  6. Nerbass FB, Pecoits-Filho R, McIntyre NJ, McIntyre CW, Willingham FC, Taal MW. Demographic associations of high estimated sodium intake and frequency of consumption of high-sodium foods in people with chronic kidney disease stage 3 in England. J Ren Nutr. 2014 Jul;24(4):236-42. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2014.03.003. 
     
  7. Fraser SD, Roderick PJ, McIntyre NJ, Harris S, McIntyre C, Fluck R, Taal MW. Assessment of proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3: albuminuria and non-albumin proteinuria. PLoS One. 2014 May 27;9(5):e98261.
     
  8. Nerbass FB, Pecoits-Filho R, McIntyre NJ, McIntyre CW, Taal MW. Development of a formula for estimation of sodium intake from spot urine in people with chronic kidney disease. Nephron Clin Pract. 2014;128(1-2):61-6. 
  9. Taal MW, Thurston V, McIntyre NJ, Fluck RJ, McIntyre CW. Impact of Vitamin D Status on the Relative Increase in Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Parathyroid Hormone in Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney Int; published online 15 Jan 2014. 
     
  10. Fraser SD, Roderick PJ, McIntyre NJ, Harris S, McIntyre CW, Fluck RJ, Taal MW. Suboptimal blood pressure control in chronic kidney disease stage 3: baseline data from a cohort study in primary care. BMC Fam Pract. 2013 Jun 24;14:88. 
     
  11. McIntyre NJ, Fluck RJ, McIntyre CW, Fakis A, Taal MW. Determinants of arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease stage 3. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e55444.
     
  12. Fraser SD, Roderick PJ, McIntyre NJ, Harris S, McIntyre CW, Fluck RJ, Taal MW. Socio-economic disparities in the distribution of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease stage 3. Nephron Clin Pract. 2012;122(1-2):58-65.
     
  13. McIntyre NJ, Fluck R, McIntyre C, Taal M. Treatment needs and diagnosis awareness in primary care patients with chronic kidney disease. Br J Gen Pract. 2012 Apr;62(597):e227-32. 
     
  14. Evans PD, McIntyre NJ, Fluck RJ, McIntyre CW, Taal MW. Anthropomorphic measurements that include central fat distribution are more closely related with key risk factors than BMI in CKD stage 3. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e34699. 
     
  15. McIntyre NJ, Fluck RJ, McIntyre CW, Taal MW. Skin autofluorescence and the association with renal and cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease stage 3. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Oct;6(10):2356-63. 
     
  16. McIntyre NJ, Fluck RJ, McIntyre CW, Taal MW. Risk profile in chronic kidney disease stage 3: older versus younger patients. Nephron Clin Pract. 2011;119(4):c269-76.

Glossary

Glossary of terms

Arterial stiffness Stiffness of the wall of the arteries in the body. Greater arterial stiffness is associated with a higher risk of heart disease.
CKD Chronic kidney disease. A condition that causes kidney function to be lower than normal for at least 3 months. There are many different causes of CKD. The term “chronic” does not mean severe; it means simply that the condition has existed for 3 months or more.
Creatinine A chemical in the blood that is normally cleared by the kidneys. Higher levels of creatinine are seen when kidney function is lower than normal.
Cystatin C A chemical in the blood that is normally cleared by the kidneys. Higher levels of cystatin C are seen when kidney function is lower than normal.
Primary Care Healthcare delivered by GP practices.
Prospective Study

A study in which people are evaluated at the start and are then monitored over a period of time.

Pulse wave velocity The speed at which a pressure wave travels along the arteries each time the heart beats. Higher pulse wave velocity is associated with stiffer arteries and stiff arteries are associated with a higher risk of heart disease.
Retrospective Study A study in which people are evaluated at a point in time and their current condition is compared to their condition at some point in the past.
Secondary Care

Healthcare delivered by hospitals.

Skin autofluorescence

A measurement of light that reflects off the skin when exposed to ultraviolet light. This is a measure of the accumulation in the skin of chemicals called advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Higher SAF has been associated with a higher risk of heart disease and death in some studies.

 

Contact us

Study contact telephone number: 01332 786 608 

Email: dhft.derbykidneystudies@nhs.net


Please contact us using the above e-mail for questions about the RRID study.

In general we would prefer not to receive queries about your personal health and care via this e-mail address.