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Glossary

Glossary of terms

AKI Acute Kidney Injury
Not an actual injury but a sudden reduction in kidney function.
CKD Chronic Kidney Disease
A gradual decline in kidney function over time.
Prospective Cohort Study A study to which participants are recruited and then data collected over time.
Retrospective Cohort Study A study which data previously collected for a defined group of patients.

Retrospective studies have limitations as the subject data is historic and cannot be extended as the study develops.  However, prospective studies require additional organisation; time has to elapse for the data to be collected and the participant cohort can diminish throughout the duration of the study.

Cohort  Group or sub-group of participants in a study.
Primary care Health care provided by your GP in the community.
Secondary care

Health care provided by the hospital.

Biomarker Proteins in the blood and urine