Coronavirus guidance

If you think you may have symptoms of coronavirus (opens in new window) >, follow the national guidance and self-isolate for 10 days. Please see our information for visitors > before you plan on visiting one of our hospitals. If you, or a member of your family has tested positive for coronavirus, please find resources to aid your/their recovery on our supporting your recovery from coronavirus > page.

RRID study glossary

Glossary of terms

AKI Acute Kidney Injury
Not an actual injury but a sudden reduction in kidney function.
CKD Chronic Kidney Disease
A gradual decline in kidney function over time.
Prospective Cohort Study A study to which participants are recruited and then data collected over time.
Retrospective Cohort Study A study which data previously collected for a defined group of patients.

Retrospective studies have limitations as the subject data is historic and cannot be extended as the study develops.  However, prospective studies require additional organisation; time has to elapse for the data to be collected and the participant cohort can diminish throughout the duration of the study.

Cohort  Group or sub-group of participants in a study.
Primary care Health care provided by your GP in the community.
Secondary care

Health care provided by the hospital.

Biomarker Proteins in the blood and urine